1933-39 Jews

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  • 1933-39
    • legal discrimination
      • Many Nazis wanted to take immediate measures against Jewish people and their businesses.
      • one day national boycott was organised for 1st April 1933
        • Jewish owned shios, cafes and businesses were picketed by the SA, stood out outside urging people to not entre.
        • this boycott was not universally accepted by the German people and it caused a kit if bad publicity abroad.
      • once Nazi regime established the legal basis for its dictatorship, it was legally possible to initiate an anti-Jewish policy.
        • most significantly by creation of Nuremberg laws in September 1935.
          • 7th April 1933 - Jews excluded from the governments civil service.
          • 15th September 1935 - Jews lost citizenship in Germany
        • discrimination against Jews got worse as the ongoing range of laws was introduced.
          • all the rights of Jews were gradually removed even before the onset of war.
    • Propaganda
      • Goebbels was a particularly committed anti-Semite
      • he used his skills as the minister of propaganda and popular enlightenment to indoctrinate the German people
      • all aspects of culture associated with Jews were censored.
      • full range of propaganda methods used to advance the anti-Semitic message.
        • Posters
        • Newspaper e.g. Der Angriff
        • Cinema e.g. the eternal jew
      • particular aspect of anti-Semitic indoctrination was emphasis placeed on influencing the German Youth
        • message obviously put across by Hitler Youth
        • Schools conformed to new revised textbooks and teaching materials.
    • forced emigration
      • start of Nazi dictatorship a number of Jews has decided to leave Germany voluntarily
      • Jews with influence high reputation or sufficient wealth could find means to leave
      • most popular destination were Palestine, Britain and the USA.
      • 1938 new dimension to anti semitism developed.
      • events in Austria 1938 - Central office for Jewish Emigration was established in Vienna, overseen by Adolf Eichmann.
      • Jewish property was confiscated to finance the emigration of poor Jews.
      • within six months, Eichmann forced the emigration of 45.000 Jews
        • such success that january 1939 Goring prompted to create Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration ran by Heydrich and Eichmann.
    • Terror and violance
      • in early years of regime, the SA radical left wing of the Nazis, took advantage of power at local level to use violence against the Jews.
      • however after night of long knives June 1934, anti-Semitic violence became more sporadic for two provable reasons.
        • in 1936 there was distinct decline in anti-Semitic campaign because of Berlin Olympics and need to avoid international alienation
        • conservative force still had restraining influence. Schacht had continued to express worries about implications of anti-Semitic action for economy.
      • events of 1938, were on different scale.
        • union with Austria in March 1938, resulted in thousands of attacks on 200,000 Jews of Vienna
        • 9-10 November 1938 sudden violent pogrom against Jews known as night of crystal glass (kristallnacht) started in Berlin and spread throughout German with dramatic effects.
          • destruction of numerous Jewish homes, 100 deaths attacks on 10,000 Jewish shops and businesses, and burning down of 200 synagogues and the deportation of 20,000 to concentration camps.
          • excuse for this was assassination of Ernst Von Rath, German diplomat in Paris by Herschel Grunspan, a Jew on 7th November


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