1905 revolution

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  • 1905 Revolution
    • causes
      • short term
        • bloody sunday
          • 150,000 workers - peaceful demonstration outside the winter palace to present a petition to the Tsar
          • wanted: end to russo-japanese war, expanded suffrage,higher pay, lower working hours and an end to forced overtime
          • tsar was not in the palace but troops dispersed the demo and killed 1000's
        • Russo-Japanese war
          • aimed at expanding into the far east which caused direct conflict with Japan
          • although Russians saw themselves as superior in military power, they suffered a humiliating defeat
          • surrendered their port Arthur naval base
          • national humiliation and unrest towards the government
          • battle of Tsushima - they lost 25/35 warships
          • undermined the support of the Tsar
      • long term
        • social and economic
          • 80% of population were peasants and in poverty
          • population grew and harvests were failing = famine
          • slums in cities and towns due to rapid population growth
        • political
          • still in autocracy
          • no elected national parliament - only elected bodied zemstva
          • demand for political reform was growing
          • extreme groups
    • how the revolution developed
      • strikes
        • 400,000 workers went on strike in response to bloody sunday
        • general strikes ordered by soviets were very successful
        • railways were crucial to put down unrest away from the cities but railway workers were on strike aswell
      • peasant uprisings
        • poor harvests
        • high taxes
        • peasants rose to rebel
      • mutinies
        • some army and naval units
        • eg: Potemkin crew, killed some of their officers and took control of the ship, they bombarded the black sea port of Odessa before sailing to neutral Romania
        • was not widespread but it did receive some publicity - helped undermine the Tsar's authority
      • st Petersburg soviet
        • assembly of workers who were elected as representatives - 400 members
        • published demands for reforms and organised strikes
        • troops arrested st Petersburg soviet leaders
        • although closed its existence showed workers were capable of organising themselves and challenging the government in a co-ordinated way
      • armed uprisings
        • strikes turned violent
        • general strike in Moscow became an armed uprising
        • 1000's died
        • city in ruins
        • revolutionaries surrendered and the revolution was over
    • governments reaction
      • October manifesto
        • promised reforms
        • creation of a new elected national parliament
        • freedom of speech/ civil rights/ religion
        • process whereby the tsar regained control
    • why the revolution ended?
      • splitting the opposition
        • October manifesto split the opposition
      • lack of unity among revolutionaries
        • lack of central coordination, spontaneity  meant armed forces and police could supress out breaks. also fought between themselves as fought for different aims
      • loyalty of the armed forces
        • put down riots, executions, exiles, stayed loyal to the tsar, supported formation of the new political parties
        • counter revolution groups helped gov regain control by executing reformers
      • fundamental law 1906
        • constitution of Russian  empire, new parliament created, with lower house (dumas)
        • upper house - partly elected partly nominated by the tsar
        • gave the tsar the right to govern by decree, ignoring parliament and could still choose his own government
      • the dumas ....

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