19 - The Development of anti-Semitic Policies 1938-40 Part 2

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  • The Development of anti-Semitic Policies 1938-40
    • The Impact of the war against Poland
      • Conquest of Western Poland in Sept 1939 provided new territories for Jews to go
        • Emphasis moved towards the deportation of Jews
      • Nazi race policies became shaped by war
        • War provided the regime with
          • a national emergency that allowed more dictatorial power and secrecy
          • a propaganda machine to encourage patriotism and hatred of enemies
          • new territories under the Reich and under the power of the **
          • a Germanisation of Poland and a 'Jew-free' Nazi empire
      • Eastern Poland was occupied by the U**R
        • The area in between East and West was named the 'General Government' of Poland under the Nazi Governor Hans Frank
          • Intended as a dumping ground for Poles and Jews
      • The Nazis wanted Lebensraum by driving Poles and Jews out of Poland
      • Nearly 2 million of Poland's 3 million Jews were in Nazi controlled territory by 1939
        • All these Jews were mainly poor and Orthodox and their amount posed problems for the Nazis
          • They fitted the Nazi idea of Untermenschen
      • At the end of Sept Hitler told Rosenberg that all Jews were to be moved to the General Government
        • Rosenberg was the Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories
        • Heydrich reported a 'Reich Ghetto' had been created there - with intended bad conditions for death
      • October 1939 Muller instructed Eichmann to deport nearly 80,0000 Jews from Katowice into Poland
        • Muller - Gestapo Chief
        • Eichmann - head of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration
        • Eichmann expanded this to include Czech Jews
      • Hitler demanded the deportation of 300,000 German Jews + all Jews from Vienna to be removed
        • Proved impossible because dealing with Polish Jews was already problematic
      • Nov 1939 - Feb 1940 ** tried to deport 1 million people to the General Government
        • 550,000 were Jews
        • Authorities couldn't deal with mass deportations from Germany + Austria at the same time
    • The Madagascar Plan
      • First suggested by French anti-Semites in late 1930s
        • Conquest of France May-June 1940 made it a possibility
      • Vichy France (capital of southern occupied France) would be in charge of resettling the Madagascan population to free it up for Jews
        • Approximately 25,000 people lived there
      • Nazis planned to send 4 million Jews to Madagascar
        • The sale of Jewish property would finance the movement of Jewish farmers, construction workers + artisans up to age 45 to Madagascar
          • Living conditions were intended to be harsh
            • Discrimination of Jews through 'natural wastage'
      • Since 1936 ** experts + Eichamnn had been scheming for mass immmigration of Jews to Palestine
        • Cooperation between ** and Zionists
        • But Palestine was small and under British rule
          • Madagascar was far from Europe, bigger and posed no political problems
      • Only in late 1940 Summer to Autumn did the Madagascar plan seem possible
        • Germany's failure to end war with Britain meant they could disrupt Jewish transportation
      • By Oct 1940 Hitler was planning for Operation Barbarossa
      • Madagascar plan was swapped for sending Jews to Siberia once Russian conquest was complete
      • Madagascar Plan proves the decision to exterminate Jews hadn't been made at that point
      • However the Nazis planned to let the Jews die off in harsh conditions in Madagascar


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