was the period from 1890 - early 20th century a turning point?

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  • 1890s - early 20th century
    • 1902 - President Roosevelt's arbitration in the anthracite coal miners strike
      • Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities (homes and apartments were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal because it had higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal). President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.
    • 1905 - Formation of the 'Wobblies'
      • The Industrial workers of the world or the 'wobblies' was set up by indivuduals who sought violence for their aims. Although they wanted to promote fairer working conditions and stand up for the poor many were arrested and membership only peaked at 100K. In the end, internal divisions mitigated the union.
    • 1913 - US department of Labour established
      • The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
    • 1914 - Clayton Act: restricted use of injunctions
      • the act prohibited exclusive sales contracts, local price cutting to freeze out competitors, rebates, interlocking directorates in corporations capitalized at $1 million or more in the same field of business, and intercorporate stock holdings. Labor unions and agricultural cooperatives were excluded from the forbidden combinations in the restraint of trade
    • 1892 - Carnegie Homestead steel strike
      • The homestead strike of 1892 between the Amalgmated Association of Iron and Steel workers (AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company heavily limited trade union rights. Negotations failed between the two, showing the power of employers. These workers used violence but ended up with the AA collapsing and the arrest of several members.
    • 1894 - Coxey's Army protest
      • Coxey's Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time. Officially named the Army of the Commonweal in Christ, its nickname came from its leader and was more enduring.
    • 1905 - Lochner V New York
      • The Supreme Court enforced injuctions against trade union workers which prevented them from striking for better trade union and labour rights.
    • 1908 - Yellow Dog contracts declared legal by SC Repression of Wobblies by federal/state troops


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