was the period from 1890 - 1920 a turning point for Native Americans

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  • 1890 - 1920
    • 1890 - Massacre at wounded knee: defeat
      • The quality of reservations was poor rendering the dream of becoming farmers impossible. Not only did they lack food because of this poor farming, buffalo massacre and corrput indian agents made it hard to get food. As a result, many indians grew fed up and in 1890, 200 NA's tried to leave the reservations but were gunned down at the wounded knee.
    • Life on reservations: poverty, alcholism and disease: white 'civilsing' education; lack of unity
    • 1903 - Lone Wolf V Hitchcock
      • The fact hindering to oppose government policies came from the fact that there was no united force. Though many tribes did resit assimilation. The lone wolf v hitchcock case of 1902 demanded for self-governance rights but congress reviked all the treaties made with NA's
    • 1911 - SAI
      • In 1911, the society for American Indians was founded which campaigned for better education and healthcare. Though, they were limited due to short funds and internal division meant that it quickly collapsed in the 1920s.
    • Approx 10,000 NA men fought in World War One
      • WW1 elevated urbanisation via the government's sponsor of NA's to work in the defense industry in cities. Many NA's also joined the war as soldiers and befended WA's
    • Continued seasonal agricultural work or life in city: poverty and discrimination

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