AS History: Russian History Timeline Part 1: 1880-1920

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  • 1880's
  • 1880
  • 1881
  • Unknown date: constitution proposed, Alexander II agrees to it but doesn't get chance to sign it.
  • March 10: Alexander II assassinated by Ignacy Hryniewiecki of the People's Will. His son, Alexander III becomes tsar.
  • September 21: Persia officially recognised Russia's annexation of Khwarazm in the Treaty of Akhal.
  • 1882
  • Unknown date: Alexander III introduces factory inspections and restricts working hours for women and children.
  • May 3: Alexander III introduced the May Laws, which expelled Russian Jews from rural areas and small towns and severely restricted their access to education.
  • 1883
  • Unknown date: Peasant Land Bank set up.
  • Unknown date: A wave of anti-Jewish pogroms causes mass migration of European Jews(2.5 million settle in the US, thousands settle in Palestine).
  • Unknown date: Russia abandons Turkestan which is annexed by China.
  • 1884
  • Unknown date: Russia conquers Merv.
  • Unknown date: Alexander III bans student organisations.
  • 1885
  • 1887
  • Unknown date: Alexander III introduces a quota for Jewish students in universities.
  • 1890
  • June 12: An imperial decree subordinated the zemstva to the authority of the appointed regional governors.
  • 1891
  • Unknown date: the great famine kills 500,000 people.
  • 1892
  • 1894
  • November 1: Alexander III dies; his eldest son Nicholas II succeeds him as tsar.
  • Unknown date: France and Russia sign an alliance.
  • 1896
  • Unknown date: China grants Russia permission to build the Chinese Eastern Railway across Manchuria to Vladivostok.
  • 1898
  • Unknown date: Social Democratic Party founded.
  • Unknown date: Russia expands in Northern China.
  • Unknown date: China grants Russia a lease for Port Arthur in Manchuria.
  • 1899
  • 19th Century
  • 1900-1909
  • 1900
  • July 16: In response to a local trade blockade, Russia invades and occupies the Sixty Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River. All 30,000 Qing Dynasty citizens are expelled from their homes and driver across the Amur River, where most drown.
  • 1901
  • June 30: The Military Service Act incorporated the Finnish and Russian armies.
  • 1902
  • Unknown date: Social revolutionaries carry out political assassinations.
  • 1903
  • April 6: A three day pogrom known as the Kishinev pogrom began, which would leave forty-seven Jews dead.
  • 1904
  • November 17: At the second RSDLP meeting, the party split into two factions, the Bolsheviks, and the less radical Mensheviks.
  • January 8: Japan launches a surprise torpedo attack on the Russian Navy at Port Arthur.
  • February: Japan attacks Russia in Manchuria and Korea.
  • Unknown date: The Trans-Siberian Railroad is complete.
  • 1905
  • January 9: Bloody Sunday. Peaceful demonstrators arrived at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar. The Imperial Guard fired on the crowd, killing 200 and wounding 800 people.
  • May 28: The first soviet was formed in the midst of a textile strike in Ivanovo-Voznesensk.
  • June 14: A mutiny occurred on board the battleship Potemkin.
  • June 25: The Potemkin soldiers deflected to Romania.
  • September 5: The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed, ceding some Russian property and territory to Japan to end the war.
  • October 17: Tsar Nicholas II signed the October Manifesto, which enforced the first parliament in Russia called Duma. This was as a result of the Russian expansion in Manchuria leading to the outbreak of war with Japan and the revolution.
  • 1906
  • May: The first Duma convenes, the largest block being won by the Cadets(38%).
  • April 23: The Fundamental Laws were issued, reaffirming the autocratic supremacy of the tsar.
  • April 23: The first Duma was called.
  • July 21: The tsar dissolves the Duma.
  • July 23: The Constitutional Democratic Party(Cadets) issued the Vyborg Manifesto, calling on Russian people to evade taxes and the draft. All signatories of the Manifesto lost their right to hold office in the Duma.
  • 1907
  • February 9: The secret police units under the MVD were unified under the authority under the new Okhrana.
  • February 20: The second Duma began. The Cadets dropped seats, benefitting the RSDLP and the Social-Revolutionary Party.
  • June 3: The second Duma was dissolved. Nicholas changed the electoral law and gave greater electoral value to the votes of nobility and landowners.
  • November 1: The third Duma began.
  • 1910's
  • 1911
  • 1912
  • Unknown date: The elections to the Duma are rigged to reduce the Octobrists.
  • April 4: The Russian Army fired on a crowd of striking miners, killing 150 people.
  • June 9: The third Duma ended.
  • 1914
  • July 28: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
  • July 30: Russia mobilised it's army to defend Serbia.
  • August 1: Germany declares war on Russia.
  • 1916
  • June 25: Nicholas issues a decree ordering the conscription of Central Asia.
  • December 16: Royal advisor Grigori Rasputin was murdered by a group of nobles.
  • Unknown date: Russia has already suffered nearly two million deaths in World War I.
  • 1917
  • February 26: Nicholas II ordered the dissolution of the fourth Duma. The Duma ignored his order and set up a Provisional Government with Gregory L'vov as Prime Minister.
  • February 27: Menshevik leaders founded the Petrograd Soviet.
  • March 2: Nicholas II abdicated.
  • March 30: The Provisional Government established the autonomous province of Estonia and scheduled elections for a new legislative body, the Maapaev.
  • July 3: A spontaneous pro-soviet demonstration occurred in the streets of Petrograd.
  • July 6: The demonstration was put down. The Provisional Government ordered the arrest of Bolshevik leaders.
  • July 14: The Maapaev took office.
  • July 21: Alexander Kerensky succeeded L'vov as Prime Minister.
  • August 27: General Larv Kornilov ordered an army corps to Petrograd to destroy the soviets.
  • August 29: The Provisional Government armed tens of thousands of Red Guards to protect Petrograd.
  • August 31: Kornilov was arrested.
  • September 4: Under public pressure, Bolshevik leaders were released from prison.
  • October 23: Estonian Bolsheviks captured the capital Tallinn.
  • October 25: Soldiers directed by the Military Revolution Committee of the Petrograd Soviet captured the Winter Palace, ending the power of the Russian Provisional Government.
  • October 25: The second All Russian Congress of Soviets convened. Menshevik and moderate SR representatives walked out to protest the October Revolution. The congress established and elected Sovnarkom and Lenin, it's first chairman, to run the country between sessions.
  • 1917(cont. 1)
  • December 5: A local nationalist group, the Alash Orda, established an autonomous government in Kazakstan.
  • December 6: The Finnish parliament introduced a declaration of independence.
  • December 7: Lenin establishes the terrorist police known as Cheka.
  • December 12: A Muslim republic, the Idel-Ural State, was established in Central Russia.
  • December 27: The counter revolutionary Volunteer Army was established.
  • 1918
  • January 12: The Tsentralna Rada declared the independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
  • Janurary 14: The Rumcherod declared itself the supreme power in Bessarabia.
  • January 15: A decree of the Sovnarkom established the Red Army.
  • January 16: The Romanian army occupied Kishinev and evicted the Rumcherod.
  • January 24: The Moldavian Democratic Republic declared it's independence from Russia.
  • January 28: The transcaucasian parliament held it's first meeting.
  • February 18: The Red Army conquered Kiev.
  • February 23: Mass conscription to the Red Army began in Moscow and Petrograd.
  • February 24: The Red Army retreated from Estonia in the face of the German armed forces. The Transcaucasian parliament announced it's independent Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
  • 1918(cont.)
  • March 3: Soviet Russia signed the Brest-Litovsk, ending their participation in World War I.
  • March 6: Two hundred British marines arrived at Murmansk.
  • March 25: The Belarusian National Republic was established by it's German occupiers.
  • April 30: The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established on the territory of the defunct Russian Turkestan.
  • May 26: The Czech Legion began it's revolt against the Bolshevik government.
  • May 28: Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their mutual independence.
  • June 8: An anti-Bolshevik government, the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly, was established in Samara, under the protection of the Czech Legion.
  • June 28: A decree by the Central Executive Committee made war communism.
  • June 29: The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia was established in Vladivostok.
  • 1918(cont. 1)
  • July 10: The Russian Constitution of 1918 was adopted by the fifth All Russian Congress of Soviets.
  • July 17: Nicholas and the rest of the royal family were executed on direct orders of Lenin.
  • August 30: After giving a speech at a factory in Moscow, Lenin was shot twice by SR Fanny Kaplan, but survived.
  • September 23: A meeting in Ufa lead to the establishment of an anti-Bolshevik government, the Ufa Directorate.
  • November 11: An armistice treaty was signed, ending the war.
  • November 18: A military coup overthrew the Ufa Directorate and and established it's war minister, Aleksander Kolchak, as dictator.
  • November 24: Bela Kun, a friend of Lenin's, founded the Hungarian Communist Party.
  • 1919
  • January 3: The Red Army invaded Latvia.
  • January 5: The Red Army occupied Vilinus, the Lithuanian capital, in support of the local Communist government. The Red Army captured Minsk and pronounced it the capital of the Byelorussian SSR.
  • January 16: The Orgburo was established to oversee the membership and organisation of the Communist Party.
  • February 27: Lithuania was absorbed into the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
  • March 4: The first congress of the Comitern began in Moscow.
  • March 21: Seeking a military alliance with Russia against the French, the Hungarian Social Democrats merged with the Communist Party, released Kun from prison and appointed him Commissar for Foreign Affairs.
  • 1919(cont.)
  • March 25: the eighth Party Congress reinstituted the Politburo as the central governing body of the Communist Party.
  • April 16: The Romanian army invaded Hungary.
  • April 21: The Polish army consolidated it's control of Vilinus.
  • May 30: An anti-Communist Hungarian government headed by Gyula Karolyi was established in Szeged.
  • June 16: Hungarian occupiers established the Slovak Soviet Republic.
  • June 7: The Czechoslovakian army reoccupied it's territory and dissolved the Slovak Soviet Republic.
  • August 1: Threatened by the approach of the Romanian army, Kun fled to Austria.
  • August 14: The Romanian army left the Hungarian capital, Budapest.
  • August 25: After it's total occupation by Polish forces, the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was dissolved.

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