- 1877 - 1920
- Black self-awareness, education and community
- 1905 Niagra Movement, WEB Du Bois
- First AA to recieve a Ph.D from Harvard University. in 1905, he set up the Niagra movement. At the centre of this was the recognition that African Americans were entitled to the rights and freedoms of every other American Citizen.
- 1909 NAACP
- Du Bois joined forced with other likeminded activists in the National Association for the advancement of coloured people (NAACP). Its purpose was to abolish segregation, equal voting rights, education opportunities for black people and the enforcement of the 14th and 15th amendment.
- 1916 UNIA, Marcus Garvey
- Garvey was initially inspired by Booket T. Washington, but also wished to go further than washington in his approach. Created the Univeral Negro Omprovement Association (UNIA) in 1914, which aimed for social, political and economic rights.
- 1890s Booker T Washington
- The Tuskegee Negro Normal Institute was opened and Washington was put in charge. Washington raised money to improve and expand the original poor-quality buildings and attracted good teachers. Washington believed that rather than pursuing political rights, black people should concentrate on developing their practical skills.
- Highliy respected by Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft
- 1890s, Jim Crow Laws
- The introduction of Jim Crow Laws in the southern states meant that segregation became firmly established. They provided separate schools and hospitals and separate areas on busses and trains. Some states banned mixed marriages.
- 1896 - Plessy V Ferguson
- Established the principle of separate but equal. The supreme court declared that segregation was not unconstitutional. Thus Jim crow laws were considered lawful.
- Resurgence KKK
- Chicago Race Riots1919
- AA teenager breached segregation law - there was uprsingand it led to one of the worst riots
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