1848-9 Revolutions

  • Created by: hastr010
  • Created on: 09-06-19 11:51
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  • 1848-9 Revolutions
    • Origins
      • Austrian Garrison strengtehned bringing discontent thorughout Utaly
        • Diccontent wordsened by economic difficulty,
          • 90% worked on land, almost whole economy based on agriculture, harvests had filaed in 1846 and 1847 - high prices but wages didnt rise
            • Peasants couldn't afford to feed families
      • Liberals wanted constituiont, government reform and politicla freedom and natoinalists demanded independece from austria and some measures of Italian unity
      • REvolutions in Frane and Vienna inspired revoltuioany feelinf in Utaly
    • Sicily
      • Cause
        • King Ferdinand of Naples promised reform but reform gave way to repression
        • an outbreak of cholera left Sciilans in desperate state
      • Action
        • Posters went up in Palermo calling fro recolution with weapons being handed to those who turned up at the public square at dawn 3 day s later
        • Arms handed out and clashes with gov. troops - peasants fro outside the city also came to help
          • Neapolitan army shelled the city and were reinforced by 5000 men
            • Reinforcements arrived to find revolutionaries had taken over teh city demanding a constituion like teh spanish 1812 - one that had been granted to Naples but removed in 1816
              • Compromise offered but refused - revolutionaries had taken over msot of the land
      • Outcome
        • Provisional gov. set up with help of m/c moderates who were becoming anxious about the peasants next actions
        • Civic guard set up to control the masses who were marching on towns and villages and a parliament was eleceted
        • Sicily and Naples were decidedly divided - seperatist movement
    • Naples
      • news of palermo revoltuions spread to Naples
        • huge demonstration demanded constitution
      • The King onnly agreed to two chamber parliment with limited powers, he also agreed to national guard and freeing of press from censorship
      • Peasant grievances over right to use common land led to more gighting
        • Ferdinand's troops were successfiul this time and by September troops were sent to reclaim Scily
          • Sicily
            • Cause
              • King Ferdinand of Naples promised reform but reform gave way to repression
              • an outbreak of cholera left Sciilans in desperate state
            • Action
              • Posters went up in Palermo calling fro recolution with weapons being handed to those who turned up at the public square at dawn 3 day s later
              • Arms handed out and clashes with gov. troops - peasants fro outside the city also came to help
                • Neapolitan army shelled the city and were reinforced by 5000 men
                  • Reinforcements arrived to find revolutionaries had taken over teh city demanding a constituion like teh spanish 1812 - one that had been granted to Naples but removed in 1816
                    • Compromise offered but refused - revolutionaries had taken over msot of the land
            • Outcome
              • Provisional gov. set up with help of m/c moderates who were becoming anxious about the peasants next actions
              • Civic guard set up to control the masses who were marching on towns and villages and a parliament was eleceted
              • Sicily and Naples were decidedly divided - seperatist movement
          • Bombardment of local towns gained Ferdinand nickname 'King Bomba'
            • Sicily forced to reuinify with Napes and teh king replaced parliament with absoluate rule and a polic state
    • Piedmont
      • Promised to grant a constituion
      • Charles Albert agreed to help Lombardy and declards war on Austria
        • Defeated Austrias May 1848
      • Charles Albert defeated by General Radetzsky at custoza
        • Armistace signed and Piedmont withdrew from Lombardy
      • Despite losing Custoza and Lombardy's support he re-entered war at novara and lost again
        • HE abdicated and his son VE II took over
    • The Pope
      • Pope promised to gratn papal states a constiution
      • Pope's army commander disobeyed orders and joined fight with Piedmont
        • Piedmont
          • Promised to grant a constituion
          • Charles Albert agreed to help Lombardy and declards war on Austria
            • Defeated Austrias May 1848
          • Charles Albert defeated by General Radetzsky at custoza
            • Armistace signed and Piedmont withdrew from Lombardy
          • Despite losing Custoza and Lombardy's support he re-entered war at novara and lost again
            • HE abdicated and his son VE II took over
      • did not want war with Austria
      • Issued Papal Allocution - urged people not to go to war with Austria, he rejected any future plans for unifications and refused to head a federation - church turned to reactionary absolutism
        • Casued issues as catholic liberals couldn't decide to follow religion or politicasl
        • Fled after chief minister was murdered
          • The government he left behind anounced series of reforms  - abolished tax on grinding corn, provided public building work for unempoloyed and porposed holding of constituent
            • Garribaldi was presnet at constituente meeting
              • 4 days after the first meeting he declared an end to temporal power and the Roman Republic was declared
                • Mazzini's Roman Republic
                  • Mazzini elected head of triumviarte
                    • did most of the work and made most of the decisions
                      • Mazzini government in fair, tolerant and enlightened way
                        • Abolished death penalty, taxation reformed to aid poor, clerical monoply on education ended, more newspapers, catholicism officail relgion of republic
                        • He urged Piemont and venice to work together to defeat Austrian rule
                  • only 100 days in charge
                  • Unemloument rose, enemies spread rumbers that MAzz was cruel and bruning people alive
                  • Many Roman's took inspiraiton from this period for future unificaiton
                  • June 1849 the republic fell due to Frnech troops
        • appealed to France, spain and Naples to save Rome from republic
          • 4 days after the first meeting he declared an end to temporal power and the Roman Republic was declared
            • Mazzini's Roman Republic
              • Mazzini elected head of triumviarte
                • did most of the work and made most of the decisions
                  • Mazzini government in fair, tolerant and enlightened way
                    • Abolished death penalty, taxation reformed to aid poor, clerical monoply on education ended, more newspapers, catholicism officail relgion of republic
                    • He urged Piemont and venice to work together to defeat Austrian rule
              • only 100 days in charge
              • Unemloument rose, enemies spread rumbers that MAzz was cruel and bruning people alive
              • Many Roman's took inspiraiton from this period for future unificaiton
              • June 1849 the republic fell due to Frnech troops
          • army of 20,000 French sent to destory repiblic
          • Pope returned and ruled with repression and corruption
            • Although this seemed better than the hardship the French troops had casued
      • Venice
        • The Venetian repiic fell against a siege by the austrian Navy
        • Sever outnreak of Cholera added to misery
          • They were driven by huunger and disease to surreneder to the austrian army and then Manin was forced to exile
        • Repiblic created under Daniele manin
        • Small scale revolt made austrinas surrender
      • Tuscany
        • The Grand Duke granted a constitution at the beginning of 1848
        • After the news of the dismissal og Metternich, the gov. sent a small army to fight the Austrians
        • Workers became agitated about work, pay and conditions - during the constitution
          • M/C radicak extremists began to preach about republicanism
        • In 1849 the Grand Duke left and went to Naples
          • a revolutionary Prov. Gov. was set up in Tuscany and they decided tehy were going to create a republic
            • Austria crushed the revolution and restord the Duke
      • Modena and Parma
        • Leaders who fled revolution reinstated by Austria
      • Lombardy
        • Tobacco Boycott - people believed that Austrian finances would be severely effected by this
          • Austrian solders smokin gon public attacjed - small scale fights turned to larger riots
        • Full scale revolution known as the 'five days'
          • Radetsky decided to withdraw from the city - revolution had broken out Vienna
            • Metternich resigned
        • prov. gov. prepared to continue fight asking for help from Piedmont

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