1.4 what is the role of geology in the development of coastal landforms?

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  • 1.4 what is the role of geology in the development of coastal landforms?
    • Lithological controls on the development of coastal landforms
      • coastal geology
        • geology
          • the nature and structure of rocks at a particular location
        • different types of rock
          • sedimentary
            • depositional
            • deposited by:
              • rivers
                • fluvial deposits
              • wind
                • aolial -sandstorms, sand dunes
              • glacial deposits
              • waves
                • coastal
            • shale - boundary between the dark and light peak- Mamtoor
            • sand and clay
              • Barton-on-sea -Hampshire
                • mass movement process
                  • slides
                  • slumps
                    • marl cliffs, east Devon
                  • flows
              • see 1.4 illustration on worksheet rocks and coast
            • sandstone cliff
              • old-red sandstone
              • Brandy Head in devon
            • chalk cliffs
              • Studland in Dorset
                • very destructive waves
                  • forms area of headland and highlad
              • see 1.4 worksheet rocks and the coast
          • igneous
            • magma that has cooled
              • extrusive
                • cooled above surface i.e lava- ICELAND
                • weaker
              • intrusive
                • cooled below surface i.e magma forms plug EDINBURGH CASTLE
                • Granite
                  • lands end -south eastern tip of england
                  • castellated cliffs in granite, jersey
          • metamorphic
            • subjected to high pressure/temp
              • therefore changing chemical compossition and structure
                • marble to diamond (metamorphic rock)
            • scotland and British Isles (where glaciers have left islands)
          • geology
            • the nature and structure of rocks at a particular location
        • lithology
          • nature of the rock itself
            • i.e its physical, chemical, texture, colour described by its permeability, solubility and hardness
      • medium to large scale coastal plan
        • Gower peninsula, south wales
          • contains
            • concordant coastline
              • south west and north stretches
            • discordant coastline
              • eastern
              • experiencing erosion and creation of headlands and bays
                • eastern
          • illustration pg 22g3 pg 30-31
    • structoral controls on the devlopment of landforms
      • geological structures
        • bedding planes
          • layers and gaps between layers
          • surface between each layer- weaker, sme or different rocks
        • faults
          • small scale coastal plan
            • geo following a fault line in Torridian Sandstone
              • handa island, Assynt, North Scotland
              • geo
                • narrow cleft that follows a line of weakness inland
                • faults
                  • small scale coastal plan
                    • geo following a fault line in Torridian Sandstone
                      • handa island, Assynt, North Scotland
                      • geo
                        • narrow cleft that follows a line of weakness inland
                        • feature of a structure
                          • blowhole
                            • when a rock has vertical line of weakness
                            • when tide high- water forced through pipe onto cliff top
                            • spouting horn, Kaua'i Island
                  • rocks that slide over/past one another
                • feature of a structure
                  • blowhole
                    • when a rock has vertical line of weakness
                    • when tide high- water forced through pipe onto cliff top
                    • spouting horn, Kaua'i Island
          • rocks that slide over/past one another
        • cracks
          • Dartmoor
          • often see piles of rocks called tors
      • angles of coast
        • concordant
          • rocks agree with coast
          • geology parallel to coastline
          • Lulworth Cove, Dorset
            • see seminar 6 geology and erosion on the west coast
        • discordant
          • rocks disagree with coast
          • geology perpendicular to coastline
          • Swanage Bay, Dorset
            • hard rocks chalk, limestone
            • soft rock of clay
              • produced swanage beach

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