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  • 1302 - Adolescence
    • What is adolescence?
      • Period of transition between childhood and life as an adult.
      • Marked by increased independence from parents.
      • Universal features including cultural and historical variations.
    • Adolescence & Middle Ages
      • Historian Philippe Aries argued that adolescence was a modern intervention.
      • Considered during this era that, "children were mixed with adults as soon as they were considered capable of doing without their mothers or nannies" (Smith, 2011: 411).
      • Thought of as a difficult period.
      • Strongly over-emphasised by writers of the 20th century.
        • "the identity crisis of adolescence".
        • "storm and stress".
        • "the turmoil"
    • Development through middle school and high school
      • Physical Development
        • Puberty.
        • Maturity
      • Cognitive Development
        • The brain and its functions also change.
        • Some researchers refer to an "intellectual growth spurt" at this age.
          • Intelligence test scores fluctuate during the period from 12 to 15 years of age.
        • Paiget's theory of cognitive development.
          • Adolescence is the stage of transition from the use of concrete operations to the application for formal operations in reasoning.
          • Adolescence begins to be aware of the limitations of their thinking.
          • Inhelder and Piaget (1958) acknowledge that brain changes at puberty may be necessary for cognitive advances of adolescence.
            • Assert that experience with complex problems, the demands of formal instruction, and exchange and contradiction of ideas with peers are also necessary for formal operational reasoning to develop.
            • Adults who have reached this stage have attained an adult level of reasoning.
          • Adolescents cognitive development is characterised more by steady growth in understanding and capabilities.
      • Socio-emotional Development
        • During adolescence children undergo significant changes in their social and emotional lives
          • Children in secondary schools seek to be more grown up.
            • They want their parents to treat them differently.
              • Link to educational setting and student-teacher relationships.
        • Identity Development
          • James Marcia's Four Identity Statuses
        • Social Relationships
          • During adolescence, changes in the nature of friendships also take place
        • Emotional Development
          • Emotional distress
            • Emotions of this age group include anger, guilt, frustration, and jealousy.
              • Link to behavior and different types.
      • Problems of Adolescence
        • Bullying
        • Dropping out
    • ESSAY FOCUS: With reference to theory and research, discuss the ways in which education for older students differs from education of children and why this may be.
    • Parenting Styles & Adolescence
      • Baumind's (1971) seminal work on the classification of parenting styles has been essential in influencing research on parenting and its effects on children and adolescence.
        • Authoritative parenting encourage adolescents to be independent while maintaining limits and controls on their actions.
        • Authoritatian parents do not engage in discussions with their teens and family rules and standards are not debated
          • Adolescents may become rebellious or depdent
        • Permissive parenting sees adolescents making important decisions without family input - results in few boundaries and rules.
    • Educational achievement & Adolescence
      • Ethnic minority status
        • Minority adolescence have higher dropout rates.
      • Single-parent and stepparents families
        • Adolescents in single-parent and stepfamily households have lower grades than those in two-parent households.
      • Low parental aspirations and expectations
        • High aspirations may be important for adolescents from low socio-economic backgrounds. Parents who have high aspirations may provide a strong influence that enables children to overcome other disadvantages.


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