Physical Activity & its impact on a healthy, active lifestyle.

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  • PAR-Q
    • Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
      • To see if an individual is able to participate in physical activity.
        • Questions are concerned with: heart conditions and chest pain, high blood pressure, joint/bone problems, feeling faint and any medication which an individual may be taking.
    • 1.1.4 - Physical activity as part of a healthy, active lifestyle.
      • Progressive overload - to gradually increase the amount of exercise completed in a week so that fitness gains occur.
      • Rest & recovery - the time required for the body to adapt and repair any damage caused by training or competition.
      • Individual needs & differences- matching the training requirements to the individual.
      • Specificity - matching training to the sport.
      • Reversibility - any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training.
      • Principles of training - FITT
        • Frequency - how often exercise is undertaken
        • Intensity - level of difficulty of exercise
        • Type - the variety of training the performer undertakes
        • Time - how long each session lasts
      • Goal Setting
        • Keeps performers motivated. and Can help to monitor progression. Helps to identify the need for changes in training programmes.
          • This can increase performer confidence.
          • Those who set sensible goals, plan, record and monitor progress are more likely to succeed than those who don't.
        • Improve general fitness?
        • Improve performance in a specific activity?
        • SMART
          • Specific - goals are to the point, which could be a time or distance goal for an athlete.
          • Measurable - results can be measure and set against recognised norms.
          • Realistic - should be realistic for the level of skill and fitness of the performer.
          • Achievable - goals are challenging but reachable.
          • Time bound - goals should be time: a timetable of training set out can give a target for a certain level of performance to be obtained.
      • Types of Training
        • Circuit
          • a series of exercsises completed in an order and for a certain time,
            • Useful? An athelete can set their own targets.. Different muscle groups can be worked at each station. Working in pairs or groups can improve teamwork and communication skills.
            • Apply training principles? All levels of fitness and ability can be catered for. Completing a circuit can be motivational and competitive.
            • Fitness components? Health - muscular strength, muscular endurance,  flexibility, CV fitness. Skill - reaction time, balance, agility, power, speed, co-ordination.
        • Continuous
          • exercise which keeps you working for over 1 minute at your max heart rate.
            • Useful? For beginners it can help to establish a level of cardiovascular fitness. For  competitive performers/trained individuals you can increase the amount of time they spend working at their heart rate max.
            • Apply training principles? Body will adapt to the strain of exercise after a few sessions. Can measure and record time spent in target zone (60-80% HRM).
            • Fitness components? Health - muscular endurance, CV fitness.
        • Fartlek
          • "Speed play" using different speeds, distances and times of exercise in the same session.
            • Apply training principles? Specificty & Individual needs and differneces  -can adaprt time, exercsie and distance accordingly.
            • Useful? Can test all types of levels of fitness. Can involve both anaerobic and aerobic respiration
            • Fitness components? Health - muscular endurance, CV fitness. Skill- speed, power, agility,.
        • Weight
          • Progressively lifting heavier weights or lifting weights more often. (Heavier weights = muscular strength) (Lighter weights = muscular ednurance)
            • Useful? Helps to improve anaerobic fitness as each rep takes less than a minute to complete.
            • Apply training principles? Specificity  & individual needs and differences 0 identify if muscular strength or muscular endurance is more relevant to the activity or level of fitness/ability.
            • Fitness components? Health - muscular strength, muscular endurance, body composition. Skill - power.
        • Interval
          • Periods of intense exercise with periods of rest.
            • Useful? Split into long interval or short interval training. Long interval - games players as it often mimics game play. Short interval - sprinters or racquet sports players.
            • Apply training principles? Must be monitored in order to change intervals for progression. Can be specific to the sport/ activity involved in.
            • Fitness components? Health - muscular strength, muscular endurance, CV fitness. Skill - power, reaction time, speed.
      • Session Planning
        • Warm up - 1.Pulse raiser. 2.Dynamic stretches. 3.Skills/intensive exercise. (8-10 seconds)
          • Increase HR and blood flow. Warms muscles making them more flexible and reduces risk of injury. Increased the range of movement. Stops tendons, muscles and ligaments getting strained.
        • Cool down - 1.Gentle aerobic. 2.Stretching. (30 seconds)
          • Stretching prevents lactic acid build up. Must be held for 30 seconds.
      • Analysing Training Session
        • Heart rate - number of tie the heart beats, measure in eats per minute (bpm).
        • Resting heart rate - number of times the heart beats per minute when at rest.
        • Measuring heart rate - taking a pulse, usually radial.
        • Working heart rate - measurement of HR during or immediately after exercise.
        • Maximum heart rate - calculated as 220 - your age.
        • Training threshold - found by taking 60-80% of the max HR. there is an aim to train within this zone.
          • Target zones & training thresholds.
  • Individual needs & differences- matching the training requirements to the individual.
  • "Speed play" using different speeds, distances and times of exercise in the same session.
    • Apply training principles? Specificty & Individual needs and differneces  -can adaprt time, exercsie and distance accordingly.
    • Useful? Can test all types of levels of fitness. Can involve both anaerobic and aerobic respiration
    • Fitness components? Health - muscular endurance, CV fitness. Skill- speed, power, agility,.
  • Progressively lifting heavier weights or lifting weights more often. (Heavier weights = muscular strength) (Lighter weights = muscular ednurance)
    • Useful? Helps to improve anaerobic fitness as each rep takes less than a minute to complete.
    • Apply training principles? Specificity  & individual needs and differences 0 identify if muscular strength or muscular endurance is more relevant to the activity or level of fitness/ability.
    • Fitness components? Health - muscular strength, muscular endurance, body composition. Skill - power.
  • Cross
    • Combines different methods of training and is adaptable to a variety of situations.
      • Useful? Enables change of activity which can prevent boredom. Weather will often not effect this type of training.
      • Apply training principles? Can be specific for the activity or individual/groups of individuals taking part.
      • Fitness components? Health - CV fitness, muscular endurance, muscular strength, body composition.     Skill - power, speed, co-ordination.
    • Types of Training
      • Circuit
        • a series of exercsises completed in an order and for a certain time,
          • Useful? An athelete can set their own targets.. Different muscle groups can be worked at each station. Working in pairs or groups can improve teamwork and communication skills.
          • Apply training principles? All levels of fitness and ability can be catered for. Completing a circuit can be motivational and competitive.
          • Fitness components? Health - muscular strength, muscular endurance,  flexibility, CV fitness. Skill - reaction time, balance, agility, power, speed, co-ordination.
      • Continuous
        • exercise which keeps you working for over 1 minute at your max heart rate.
          • Useful? For beginners it can help to establish a level of cardiovascular fitness. For  competitive performers/trained individuals you can increase the amount of time they spend working at their heart rate max.
          • Apply training principles? Body will adapt to the strain of exercise after a few sessions. Can measure and record time spent in target zone (60-80% HRM).
          • Fitness components? Health - muscular endurance, CV fitness.
      • Fartlek
        • Weight
          • Interval
            • Periods of intense exercise with periods of rest.
              • Useful? Split into long interval or short interval training. Long interval - games players as it often mimics game play. Short interval - sprinters or racquet sports players.
              • Apply training principles? Must be monitored in order to change intervals for progression. Can be specific to the sport/ activity involved in.
              • Fitness components? Health - muscular strength, muscular endurance, CV fitness. Skill - power, reaction time, speed.
      • Main activity
        • Can be include training, a skill session as well as a game, match or competition.
        • Session Planning
          • Warm up - 1.Pulse raiser. 2.Dynamic stretches. 3.Skills/intensive exercise. (8-10 seconds)
            • Increase HR and blood flow. Warms muscles making them more flexible and reduces risk of injury. Increased the range of movement. Stops tendons, muscles and ligaments getting strained.
          • Cool down - 1.Gentle aerobic. 2.Stretching. (30 seconds)
            • Stretching prevents lactic acid build up. Must be held for 30 seconds.

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