11.05 Measuring genetic biodiversity

  • Created by: Gouldfish
  • Created on: 16-05-20 13:51
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  • 11.05 genetic biodiversity
    • Factors that affect genetic biodiversity
      • Mutations
        • Mutations of the DNA can create new alleles.
      • Interbreeding
        • Alleles are transferred between two populations. 'Gene flow'
      • Selective and captive breeding
        • artificial selection where only a few members of  a population with advantageous characteristics are bread. eg- pedigree dogs.
        • Only a small number of captive individuals bread, small gene pool.
      • Natural selection
        • species will evolve to contain the alleles from the advantaged characteristic.Other characteristics may be lost
      • Genetic bottleneck
        • only a few members of a population survive an event or change. This reduces the gene pool. Only the alleles of surviving population available.
      • Genetic drift
        • Due to the chance of certain alleles being passed down to offspring. This means some can be erased altogether from a population.
      • Founder effect
        • Small number of individuals create a new colony, isolated from the original, eg overseas. Gene pool small.
    • Measuring genetic biodiversity
      • Measuring polymorphism
        • Polymorphic genes have more than one allele. Eg- blood type (immunoglob-ulin gene)
        • Monomorphic genes- one allele
        • proportion of polymorphic gene loci= number of polymorphic gene loci / total number of loci.
          • Locus (plural loci) of a gene refers to position of the gene on the chromosome.
          • The greater the proportion of polymorphic genes the greater the genetic biodiversity.


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