100 days campaign

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  • Created on: 23-05-13 01:37
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  • 100 days campaign
    • after peace allies argued over future of Europe. Louis XVIII restored but vulnerable and dependent on external support
      • Louis XVIII made king in tandem with constitutional charter and parliament. Compromise weakened when Napoleon escaped and ruled for 100 days
        • 5th March 1815, Louis XVIII told that Napoleon escaped form Elba and landed at Golde-Juan with 1000 loyal soldiers, advancing on Grenoble
          • Louis XVIII not worried to disembark in France with only 1000 me seemed a lunatic enterprise
            • Less than 48 hours later, troops sent to confront Napoleon and Grenoble garrison too, went over to Napoleon without having fired
              • Bourbon's mismanagement of army 1814-15 baring poisonous fruit
                • Napoleon marched through France gathering supporters who were dismayed at return of bourbon monarchy and afraid of land being taken.
                  • High tax and conscription, patriotism and loyalty ensured Napoleon a good following
                    • Marshal Ney sent to capture Napoleon but defected to old master
                      • When Napoleon entered Paris, Louis departed to Brussels were he could be protected by coalition
                        • It was believed that Louis Philippe was planning coup of Bourbons, known to favour a liberal constiution after fighting against France 1792-3 also popular with the army. Napoleon claimed it wasn't Louis XVIII he dethroned but the Duc d'Orleans
                          • Napoleon announced he would reform consitution - freedom of press, universal suffrage, ministers responsbile to elected assembly
                            • This acte additionnel was presented in plebiscite only 1/5 electors voted only 1.5 mil in favour, 6000 against. Apathy
                              • Napoleon tried to negotiate separately with allies but presence served to reunite coalition.
                                • Napoleon advanced against British/Prussians in Belgium and nearly succeeded adopting central position to divide forces. Prussians defeated at ligny
                                  • Ney sent to hold off British advance. Faced Wellington at Waterloo, expecting Prussian help. Napoleon delayed waiting for dry ground, Battle of Waterloo 14th June
                                    • Arrival of 81,000 Prussians swung events in Wellington's favour and Napoleon was pursued back to PAris.
                                      • He wanted to try again but French council of state refused.
                                        • Had to accept 2nd abdication and recency for his son ignored, exiled 5000 miles to St. Helena
                                          • Napoleon dies 1821
                                            • Louis wants to return asap, 24th June on French soil, crossed frontier behind Wellington's army.
                                              • He mistake- "baggage train of enemy" 8th July 1815 rode into Paris again


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