10. The Breakdown of the Personal Rule of Charles I, c. 1629-1640

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 27-05-19 18:22
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  • 10. The Breakdown of the Personal Rule of Charles I, c. 1629-1640
    • 1. Intro
      • 1629 was final year Charles called Parliament
    • 2. Accession of Charles I
      • Accession was smooth
      • No great issues of state associated with succession (unlike Elizabeth and James)
      • No new settlement of church is thought to be needed, some 'godly' bishops in place
      • 1625
    • 3. Charles and his new advisors
      • Changes in personnel:
        • in both secular government and among his bishops
      • Bishops
        • Change from a spectrum of views, to increasingly those who are anti-puritan, ceremonialist, links with Laud
        • At start of reign have wide breadth of view (Calvinists or puritan).
      • In government, many of king's chief advisor are crypto-Catholics
        • People at top of government change
      • Charles I, less pragmatic than James I, more prone t see puritan conspiracy
    • 4. A new regime - a new context
      • James I had crypto-Catholics on his Privy Council and worked with them, but more in key positions under Charles
        • Lord Portland (Lord Treasurer)
        • Sir Francis Cottington
        • Sir Francis Windebanke (the secretary of state)
      • Influence of a new French, Catholic queen - Henrietta Maria
        • who has own priests at court and her own private chapel in heart of capital
        • visited by Catholic priests
        • Charles I blamed her for conversions of some Protestant ministers to Catholicism
      • Court seen as area close to King where Catholicism is tolerated
    • 5. Rise of Laudianism
      • More clergymen put in secular positions,
        • e.g. Bishop William Juxon, becomes Lord Treasurer in 1636
      • Archbishop Laud as chief councillor of king, more active in shaping secular policy as well
      • Laud also becomes tainted by association with unpopular financial policies and the stress on the royal prerogative used to implement them (i.e. using ancient royal precedents).
      • Use of courts such as Star Chamber (King and his councillors) to force through secular and religious policies
      • Money running out, Charles has to use financial devices to bypass parliament
    • 6. The Laudian programme
      • Laudian policies stress:
        • Uniformity in church practices
        • Emphasis on positive value of ceremonies and importance of public worship
        • recapturing the status and wealth that the church had lost at the Reformation (and strong defence of episcopacy)
        • Controlling undue influence of lay people within the church
      • Enforcement
        • Laudian aims (and ideas) tended to be disseminated via action, not words
        • New policies often introduced with little explanation of rationale behind them
        • Walter (historian) argues there was a feeling that the enforcement was a strong intervention in local affairs
          • Seen as intrusive and heavy-handed
        • Use of royal prerogative courts to deal with opposition, rather than softer methods
        • Partial attitude that people needed to do as they were told by crown and bishops
          • demonstrates how there was a feeling lay people had gained to much authority
        • Collections taken for upkeep of Cathedrals
          • people feel they are being told what to do again

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