1. Monarch and Parliaments, 1603-29

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  • The Political Nation, the social basis of power and James I.
    • The social basis of power
      • There was a property qualification of £2 per year in order to vote.
        • No danger of power being shared with Lower classes.
      • member of the P.N carried out National roles in politics
        • becoming members of the Privy Council and MPs.
      • Wealth-therefore power.
        • primarily based on land ownership.
        • Enclosure, developed briskly, meant some large landowners were able to increase their wealth.
      • Urbanisation increased
        • the wealth of the merchants, and those with associated professions (banking, insurance) increased.
        • London was on the path to becoming the centre of an empire which controlled colonies, North America and Caribbean.
          • those who benefited financially from London's growth were able to join the Political Nation.
    • The Monach
      • Seventeenth century, monarch was the most important in the political system
      • The prerogative powers possessed by monarchs enabled control of areas of Government.
        • could declare war.
        • Could sign treaties with foreign powers.
        • Had the power to call or dissolve parliament when they wish.
        • could appoint a Privy Council of their own choosing for the day to day running of the Government.
        • controlled some sources of income. Including money recieved from feudal dues and customs duties.
      • The Monarch faced some restrictions
        • to pass legislation, parliament had to be called. Meaning MPs could scrutinise and debate proposed laws. Leading to conflict and division.
        • Normal Crown revenue not enough for monarch (times of war). Meaning Parliament was relied upon to approve new taxes.if parliament didn't agree, a political stalemate occured.
      • No true democracy in the same way as today.
    • James I
      • Character.
        • James came to the Throne in 1603. Became King of Scotland in 1566
          • His mother, Mary Queen of Scots, was cousins of the childless Elizabeth I. Making James the closest heir
        • he was intelligent and wrote books.
          • a guide to hunting witches entitled Daemonologie in 1597.
        • Eight months after his Birth.
          • his father was murdered as well as his mothers execution following the catholic plots against E.I
            • contributed to a lifelong fear of threats to his throne.
        • had a thorough education and his tutors schooled him in Presbyterian doctrine.
        • intelligent but was also vain, shallow and spent huge sums of money on clothes and artwork.
        • he was extremely trusting of his Scottish advisors and a string of royal favourites.
      • Views of monarchy.
        • Believed strongly in the Divine Right of Kings.
        • published a work entitled The Law of Free Monarchies in 1598.
          • Stated God places kings on the throne and the monarchies should be able to wield unrestrained power.
          • Kings are able to act above the law and are not subject to normal judicial procedures.
          • He saw Parliament as something that served him when he required, rather than a core element of the political system.
  • Consisted of the Nobility and Genty
    • including Lawyers, Wealthy merchants. (normally based in London.


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