Power and the People - Part 1

Mind map for everything you need to know about Power and the People - Part 1: Challenging authority and feudalism

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  • 1. Medieval Britain
    • 2. Why were the Barons unhappy with King John?
      • KEPT RAISING TAXES
      • FAILURE AT WAR
    • 1. Context
      • Fuedal system in place
      • King had all the power and the rest depended on him
      • King granted land to followers in exchange for obligations
      • The CHURCH owned land and received tax from the people - a tithe. They had prisons to put priests on trial or for those who did not pay the tithes
      • When new king was crowned, a CHARTER OF LIBERTIES - a set of new laws - was usually released
    • 3. The Origins of Parliament
      • King Henry III vs his barons
        • Always short of money
        • Lost 2 major wars against France
        • Relied on a few specific people (French foreigners), so other barons felt isolated
        • Sheriff's in the counties favouring King, not being fair
        • Grievances similar to before, barons accused him of not following MC
      • Simon de Montfort
        • Who was he?
        • How did he contribute to the origins of parliament?
          • He relied more and more on the Commons for support as his support from barons declined
          • In January 1265, for the 1st time, Commons were represented  in parliament
          • Future King's felt the need to do the same, thus the House of Commons emerged
      • Provisions of Oxford
        • A list of demands made by the Parliament in Oxford
          • 'Aliens' were removed from parliament
        • The King had no choice but to accept
        • Divisions appeared between the barons
    • Medieval revolt and royal authority
      • PEASANT'S REVOLT, 1381
        • What happened?
          • Tax collectors went to Essex to collect unpaid Poll Taxes
            • Villagers of Brentwood refused to pay and escaped to the forest
          • Word of protest spread, and other villages began to do the same thing
          • Armed men went to London
            • There they targeted royal officials, wealthy churchmen and records of land ownership and debt
          • Rebels entered the tower of London & beheaded the Treasurer & Archbishop of Canterbury
          • King Richard II was presented with demands, such as removing corrupt officials
            • The King promised to grant all the demands and sent the rebels home
              • Then he sent the royal army to the villages and killed the rebels
        • Why did this happen?
          • Social causes
            • Disputes between landlords and the peasants
            • Food and rent prices went up, increasing class divide
            • Throughout first half of the century, there were floods, droughts and famine
            • THE BLACK DEATH, 1348-1349
              • Caused death of 50% of the population
              • Parliament passed Statute of Labourers, everyone under 60 needed to work and wages could be no higher than in 1347
              • Rich needed to raise wages or lower rent if they wanted workers
          • Economic causes
            • The King needed money for wars... so he taxed the people
            • Richard II (who was aged 11) introduced the 1st Poll Tax in 1377
            • A 2nd Poll Tax in 1379 to pay for invasion of France
              • 1/3 of taxpayers disappeared from tax list
            • A 3rd Poll Tax was a weeks' wages for labourers
          • Political causes
            • Britain was continuing war with France and it was going badly
        • What impact did this have?
          • Struck fear into ruling class
          • Landowners took action to prevent future rebellions, like freeing velleins
          • The ideas of John Ball were picked up again later
          • 600 years later in 1989, protesters of Poll Tax chose the same route as these rebels
        • Who was significant?
          • WAT TYLER
            • A key leader of the Peasants' Revolt
            • He was severely injured by Lord Mayor of London whilst making demands of the King in Smithfield
              • King's bodyguard executed him immediately after
          • JOHN BALL
            • He was a priest in York, then Colchester
            • Excommunicated & appeared before Archbishop of Canterbury several times.
              • He was arrested in 1381
            • There is not much evidence of his actual role
            • He fled when the rebellion collapsed
              • He was eventually captured and hung, drawn and quartered after a trial where he was found guilty.

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