PSYA3 Relationship maintenance, formation and breakdown

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
Key Concept Definition Supporting Evaluation
Research
RNS Theory proposes May and Hamilton Lacks ecological validity and
Reinforcement + people attracted to those mundane realism:
(1980)
Reward/Need Satisfaction they... People do not meet people under
those circumstances.
Theory Find rewarding to be with as they Procedure:
meet an unmet need e.g need for While listening to either The RNS only explores the
company, financial security. pleasant, unpleasant or rewards people get from a
Byrne and Clore (1970) (Affiliation: Refers to the basic no music, 30 female relationship.
universal need for undergraduates were This is a problem because Hayes
company/relationships/belonging asked to make a series of 1985 found that individuals gain
and acceptance. ) personal judgements of reward from giving as well as
It is based on operant attractive and receiving.
conditioning, theory unattractive males, using Gender and Culture Bias:
suggests people.... photographs. Lott 1994 found that in many
cultures women are more focused
Form relationships with those Results: on meeting the needs of others
whose presence is directly The attractive males were than on reinforcement.
associated with reinforcement evaluated more positively Also explains why people would
Based on classical than the unattractive stay in abusive relationships.
conditioning, theory Perhaps the rewards are not
males.
suggests people... happiness but stability and status.
More positive evaluations
The relationship fulfils the need of
of personal character in
Learn to associate person (neutral
Theories of Relationship Formation stimulus) with the positive mood
the pleasant music
By Patrice Camille Stephens

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
(unconditional stimulus) they were condition than in either affiliation.
in when they met them. of the other conditions.
Successful relationships
develop when...
The positive feelings outweigh the
negative feelings.
Matching Hypothesis + The more socially Computer Dance ­ Culture Bias, Ethnocentric:
desirable someone is the Walster 1966-1969) The values in North America
Social Desirability more desirable they may be more materialistic to
752 1st year undergrads cultures elsewhere. E.

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
The people who found The concept `physical
their matches attractive attractiveness' is poorly
carried their relationships operationalised it is subjective.
on.
The Filter/ Stage Model + Relationships develop through Kerchoff & Davis The Filter Model has external
different filters and different (1962) validity; it was conducted on real
Demography factors are important at different Longitudinal study of
life couples. Although findings
times.

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
How well a couple get on and fit Supports `Frequency of
each other's needs- happens interaction' (Dyadic: Romantic relationships
once a relationship is established between two people. Does not
and determines the longevity of include, define or explain
said relationship. polygamy.)
A series of exchanges between Rusbult and There is some support for the
Social Exchange Theory individuals.

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
should be like and what we expect influenced the decision to
Theories of Relationship Maintenance to gain. end the relationship.
Comparison Level for alternatives:
comparisons made based on what
an alternative relationship may have
to offer.
Offers an explanation of how Many of the studies Gender Differences:
Equity Theory social exchange works in real-life associated with social
Walster et al (1978) dyadic relationships.

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
for the other motivates
giving. They have some
concerns over equity but
are more relaxed when it
comes to compromises.
They tend to think that in a
relationship, rewards and
costs eventually balance out
and equity is achieved.

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
Stephanie Rollie and Steve Duck Supported by The model has implications for
A Model Of Relationship (2006) have developed a model observations of real-life intervention. It highlights
Breakdown of termination of close or break ups. Tashiro and communication as a vital
Rollie and Duck (2002) intimate relationships. Frazier (2003) The model is also not deterministic
because it does not suggest that
An updated version of every relationship must pass
through these phases.

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February 28, 2011 RELATIONSHIPS ­ KEY CONCEPT GRID
Theories of Relationship Breakdown in the weeks after the
relationship.
Lack of Skills Extramarital Affairs Gender Differences:
Reasons For Relationship women are more
Breakdown The lack of social skills, therefore, Boekhout (1999) dissatisfied by
Duck (1999) means that others perceive them as
unhappiness or
not being interested in relating.

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