OCR GCSE History, Medicine Through Time, Paper 2 - June 2011

These revision notes relate to Paper 2 in June 2011 on Florence Nightingale and Mary Seacole. They can however also be used for Paper 1, Medicine Through Time.

Preview of OCR GCSE History, Medicine Through Time, Paper 2 - June 2011

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History, Paper 2 ­ Source Paper, Florence Nightingale & Mary Seacole
Information on Paper 2:
7 ­ 8 questions based on sources
You must use both your own knowledge and the sources
If you question the reliability of a source, it is possible to get 11/10
Florence Nightingale
Who was Florence Nightingale?
Florence Nightingale was born on the 12th of May in the year 1820 (the 19th
century) and was named `Florence' because she was born in Florence, in Italy; her
wealthy parents were in Florence as they were on a tour of Europe. In 1837,
when she was 17, Florence felt that God was calling on her to do some work,
however she did not know what that work should be. Florence developed an interest
in nursing, but her parents disapproved greatly; they considered the profession as
inappropriate for women of her class and background, therefore they did not let
Florence train as a nurse. Her parents expected her to make a good marriage and live
a conventional upper class women's life. Eventually, in 1851, Florence's parents
relented and she went to Kaiserwerth in Germany for three months nursing training;
this enabled her to become the Superintendent of a hospital for gentlewomen on
Harley Street in 1853. The following year, in 1854, the Crimean War broke out and
soon newspaper reports were describing the desperate lack of medical facilities for
wounded British soldiers at the front. Sidney Herbert, the war minister, already knew
Florence, and asked her to oversee a team of nurses in the military hospitals, in
Turkey. In November 1854, Florence arrived in Scutari, in Turkey; she was based in the
Barrack Hospital. With her nurses, she greatly improved the conditions and reduced
the mortality rate. Florence returned to England in 1856 and four years later in 1860,
she established the `Nightingale Training School for Nurses' at St Thomas' Hospital in
London. Once the nurses were trained, they were sent to hospitals all over Britain,
where they introduced the ideas they had learnt, and established nursing training on
the Nightingale model. Florence's theories, published in `Notes on Nursing' in 1860,
were hugely influential, and her concerns for sanitation, military health and hospital
planning established practises that are still in existence today. Florence Nightingale
died on the 13th of August.
Why is Florence Nightingale
famous?

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Page 2

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Florence Nightingale is famous for her nursing work during the Crimean War
(1854-56). Florence changed the face of nursing from a mostly untrained profession
to a highly skilled and well-trained medical profession with very important
responsibilities.
Where and When was Florence Nightingale born?
Florence Nightingale was born in the 19th century on the 12th of May 1820.

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In 6 months, Nightingale had cut the death rate of wounded soldiers to only
two out of every hundred. The newspapers back i
Mary Seacole
Who was Mary Seacole?
Mary Jane Grant was born in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1805. Her father was a Scottish
soldier, and her mother was a Jamaican. Mary learnt her nursing skills from her
mother, who kept a boarding house for invalid soldiers.

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