Other slides in this set
There were 18 governments in
between the years 1919-33, meaning
each one lasted on average less than a
·There were on average about
4 parties in each government.
·There were 13 different Chancellors during that
time, including 4 in 7 months (including Hitler)
between June 1932 and January 1933.
·Support for governments in the Reichstag
grew steadily weaker; between 1930 and 1933
·In 1930, taking advantage of the no government. had a majority so they had to
Depression, the Nazis overtook the govern by presidential decree (which was
The Decline of
conservative nationalist DNVP to become supposed to be used only in emergencies). In
the biggest right wing party in Germany the Weimar that sense parliamentary government had
and the second biggest overall. Republic already broken down before Hitler came to
·In July 1932, as the Depression
·Support for democracy steadily declined until by deepened, the Nazis overtook the SPD
1932 most Germans were voting either Nazi or (Social Democrats) to become the most
Communist, i.e. against the Weimar Republic. By popular party in Ger with 37% of the
1933 it was clear that stable government would be vote, the highest they ever got in a
impossible without either the Nazis or the democratic election.
Communists being involved; to Hindenburg and other
conservatives, there was no alternative to Hitler
Junker (landowners) ·The Army resented the loss of the
·Industrialists were concerned about
resented the loss of the privileged status it had enjoyed under
lack of economic growth, especially
dominant social and political the Kaiser and the military restrictions
during the Depression, and loss of
position they had enjoyed imposed by the Treaty of Versailles
control over workers (in particular
under the Kaiser and their (which they blamed the Republic for).
they wanted the works councils set
incomes were hit by a fall in They wanted a more authoritarian
up during the Republic abolished).
world agricultural prices. (less democratic) government
·Most judges came from an upper class
·Protestant clergy resented the loss of
background and deplored what they
the privileged position most of them
regarded as a decline in law and order
had enjoyed under the Kaiser and
compared with the Kaiser's time; they
deplored what they saw as a decline in
also consistently gave more lenient
moral standards and the growth of
sentences to nationalists, including
Hitler, than Communists.
Why the Weimar
republic was so
·Most of the press
was owned by rich
·Most teachers felt that the salary businessmen who
differential between them and the preferred the Kaiser
working class had been eroded to the Republic.
too much and felt that there had
been a decline in discipline and
respect for authority among the
·German small businessmen ·German workers were being
·German farmers were being
were being ruined by Marxist exploited by Jewish capitalists
ruined by Jewish money lenders,
governments (high taxation, ·6 million were unemployed (1932)
cheap food imports and high
inflation etc) and Jewish and barely had enough to eat
taxes; 35,000 German farmers
owned banks and department ·Marxism had destroyed traditional
went bust 1928-33.
stores. moral standards
Economic failure, with 6
·Special help for farmers and small
million unemployed 1932 and
business: Reich Entailed Farm
·Treaty of Versailles 35.000 farmers going bust
Law and Law to protect Retail
left Germany disarmed 1928-33
Trade (both 1933)
and humiliated ·By 1938 Ger had full employment ·Hitler rearmed Germany,
·On average workers' incomes remilitarised the Rhineland and
rose by 25% 1933-8, farmers' 41% annexed Austria and
Czechoslovakia, all without war
·Decline of law and order,
discipline and moral standards,
especially among the young
·Crime fell, with "asocials" being
put in concentration camps
·SA and KPD suppressed
·Weak, unstable coalition ·Return to traditional family values,
government (on average each with women as mothers and
one lasted less than 1 year), housewives
lacking parliamentary majority ·Nazi youth movements disciplined
Why The Nazi Regime the young
Was An Improvement On
The Weimar Republic
·By 1932 most Germans ·Strong, single party
were voting for anti- government with
democratic parties, showing total control of the
faith in the system had Reichstag
·Germany was deeply
·Plebiscites on withdrawal from the
divided and national morale
League of Nations (1933), Hitler
was at an all-time low
becoming Head of State (1934), the
·Hitler was a strong, Rhineland (1936) and the Anschluss
charismatic leader who (1938) all showed over 90% support
was thought to understand for Nazi policies
·Germany lacked a strong people's concerns and was ·The Nazi idea of
leader and Weimar held responsible for the Volksgemeinschaft reunited
politicians were despised regime's successes without the nation and Ger seemed to
being blamed for any of the have regained its sense of
Consolidation of the Nazi State 1933-34.
January February 1933 March 1933 April 1933 June 1933 July 1933 October November
1933 ·27th Feb Reichstag ·5th Mar elections. ·1st Apr One day ·10th Jun ·14th Jul Law 1933 1933
·30th Jan - Fire. ·Highest turnout ever 88%. boycott of Jewish Employment Law. Against Formation of ·14th Oct ·12th Oct
Hitler ·Blamed on Nazis only got 44% of the vote. business. ·Set up major New Parties. Reichstag Nazi
appointed communists. · 13th Mar New Ministry for ·7th Apr Law For public works ·KPD and SPD dissolved. candidates for
Chancellor. ·28th Feb Public Enlightenment and Restoration Of schemes. already banned, all the Reichstag
Emergency Decree. Propaganda. Professional Civil other parties had won 92% of the
·Suspended ·Goebbels appointed head, Service. dissolved themselves. vote.
constitutional civil controlled all media. ·Administration, This law created the
rights and gave power · 24th Mar Enabling Act. courts, schools and one party state.
to the secret police. ·Gave emergency powers to universities purged · 20th Jul Concordat
Used to repress the the government for 4 years. of `alien elements' Agreement signed.
KPD. Hitler could pass decrees Jews and political
without presidential approval. opponents.
Was passed by 441 votes to
94, and was renewed in 1938.
August 1934 June 1934 January 1934
·1st August Law concerning the ·30th Jun Night of ·30th Jan Law for
Head of State of the German Reich Long Knives. Reconstruction of the
·Merged the offices of the ·SS shot SA leaders State.
president and the chancellor, and other people ·Elected state
creating position of `fuhrer'. Hitler saw as threats. assemblies dissolved,
Confirmed by a plebiscite. Reich governors
·2nd Aug Hindenburg dies, Hitler (often Nazi gauleiters)
becomes head of state. appointed to run
·Army swore a personal oath of states.
allegiance to Hitler.
Use of Law Concessions
·Emergency Decree - Feb 1933 · Hitler promised the army a monopoly, and got rid of a treat to
·Suspended constitutional civil rights, gave their position: the SA on 30th June 1934 Night of Long Knives.
power to the secret police. Used to repress the ·He made concessions to the workers e.g. set up public works
KPD. schemes and to the Centre Party, to get support for the
· Enabling Act- Mar 1933 Enabling act (agreed to the concordat).
·Gave emergency powers to the government for ·Made concessions to the catholic church by signing to
4 years. Hitler could pass decrees without concordat agreement (thought Hitler never intended to keep the
presidential approval. Passed by 441 votes to 94, agreement).
and renewed in 1938.
·Outlawing of other parties Jul 1933
·Law Against Formation of New Parties KPD
and SPD were already banned. All other parties Air of Respectability
dissolved themselves. This law created the one ·The Nazis cultivated an air of respectability.
party state. ·They stressed the importance of traditional
· Role of women separate `spheres' but
·Should be focused on KKK kids, kitchen,
·Discouraged from being fashionable, thin,
· National revival ensured he had public
smoking or wearing trousers or makeup.
support public works schemes, etc. How Hitler
·To raise birth rate: abortion illegal and
·Plebiscites e.g. plebiscite on Law consolidated contraception was hard to procure.
Concerning the Head of State of the his power ·The Nazis also professed to defend
German Reich legitimised Hitler's actions,
because the public agreed with them.
·Eliminated the SA, who were disliked
·March 1933 elections Nazis got 44% of
because of the violence they caused, in order
to keep the favour of the traditional,
conservative institution: the army.
·13th March 1933 New Ministry for Public Terror and Intimidation
Enlightenment and Propaganda created. · Hitler put pressure on the Reichstag to pass the Enabling Act
Goebbels appointed head, controlled all media. ·The SA began overthrowing local governments, using violence,
·September 1933 Reich Culture Chamber from March 1933. Eventually, elected state assemblies were
created to supervise and regulate German dissolved and Reich governors, often Nazis, were appointed.
culture e.g. art, architecture, music. ·Thousands were arrested.
·SA, SS, Gestapo.