Human Geography Notes: Population
Total Population= natural change ± net migration
Natural Change= birth rate ± death rate
Net migration = immigrants ± emigrants
Factors affecting population
Sparsely populated Densely populated
Rugged mountains Flat, lowland plains
Low levels of rainfall Reliable rainfall
Drought areas No temperature extremes
Extreme weather conditions/climate Snow/sun/monsoon areas
Frozen/thin/leached soil Grassland
Lack of clean water Deep, rich, fertile soils
High disease risk Reliable water supply
Poor economically funded areas Disease and pest free
Tundra/desert fringes Medical expertise
Difficult to contrast transport areas Large energy supplies
Easy to construct transport systems
Intensive farming or industry
Population growth over time
People are educated about health and contraception
Women in education= female emancipation
Falling death rates due to advances in health care increases life expectancy
Increasing birth rates due to medical advances
Improved diet and nutrition
Higher care levels for the elderly
Clean supply of water
Religious attitudes to birth control
Status from having children
Role of women in society
Sexual morality (multiple wives)
Other pages in this set
People can afford more children
Wider access of healthcare
Environmental conditions which breed disease reduced
If the fertility rate is 2.1 or higher, the population will replace itself
Fertility rate varies because of:
Death Rate: high death rates counteract high fertility rates. Also improvements in
healthcare and sanitation means there is more security over having a family so there
is no need to reproduce.
How does mortality vary?
A prime indicator of socioeconomic development. Areas with high infant mortality have high
rates of mortality overall
Areas with high medical infrastructure have low levels of mortality.
Reasons for high death rate:
Poor nutrition and famine
Poor hygiene/sanitation levels
Underdeveloped or inadequate health facilities
Stage 2 (early expanding):
A period of high birth rate but falling death rate. The population begins to expand rapidly.
A later period, during which the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate. This causes
population decline. Only recognised in recent years in some western European countries.
The higher the dependency ratio, the more non-economically active proportion is dependent
on the working population.
Falling death rate
High population growth
Longer life expectancy
Low birth rate
Low death rate
Higher dependency ratio
Longer life expectancy
Falling birth rate
Low death rate
Declining population growth
Why are people living longer?
Medical reasons: Better access to healthcare and medical developments (treatments)
Lifestyle changes: Better diets, awareness of participation in exercise and better quality
Wealth: Increased options and changes in employment
Environment: Reduced smog/air pollution (clean air act 1956)
Social/cultural: Health and safety regulations
What are the
Economic Travel companies such as Less tax money is generated
saga holidays specialise in as there's an economically
travel for older people- `grey active population and more
pound' pensions to pay- high
Creates job opportunities in dependency ratio- who will
the growing sector of pay?
retirement homes and More strain on the NHS and
nursing homes; services
construction, wardens, Increases taxes as less
response and security teams people have to pay for the
increasing ageing population
Leisure services may have to
be subsidised such as
What are the impacts of a youthful population?
Pressure on health services: the presence of HIV/AIDS which is passed from mother to
child and through unprotected sex.
States that the limits of the environment which restricts activity can be altered by the use
of appropriate technology. Argues that food resources are created by population pressure
and if there was more demand, farm supplies would adapt to supply the demand. Necessity
is the mother of invention
Refers to a number of environmental scares which all proved wrong.