Edexcel GCSE History: Unit 1: International Relations (1900-91): Section 1

Heya:)

These are just revision notes for the first key topic 'why did war break out' 

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Slide 2

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The World in 1900
· Europe contained the most powerful countries
· Six Great Powers: Britain, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary,
Russia and Italy.
· They were all rivals
· 19th Century- Britain was the super-power of the world; but in
1900s, it's power came under threat
· Other Great Powers (e.g. France and Germany) started to sell
good overseas as well as producing them
· Britain was also under threat from `a new power'
· USA had a higher population, and it was only a matter of time
before it produced and sold more goods
· A bit like a sing-off on The X Factor: Let's bring it on!!

Slide 3

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Well, the contestants are...
· Britain vs. France vs. Germany AND threat from the USA
· Also: Austria-Hungary vs. Russia ­ Very bitter
relationship...
· Ottoman Empire (modern-day Turkey) was growing weak
and Russia/ Austria-Hungary wanted land from the
Ottomans
· Led to possibilities of armed conflict in the future

Slide 4

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The Alliance System before
1900
· By 1900, the Great powers began to divide into two separate
groups
· Major Cause: German's growth in power and rivalry with
other powers i.e. France
· Before the 1870s, Germany was a collection of small
independent states
· 1971- Chancellor Otto Van Bismarck who bought together all
these states and crowned the King of Prussia (Wilhelm I) as
their leader
· Germany also beat France in a war and made them pay 200
million francs- overtook Alsace and Lorraine (1871)

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Kaiser Wilhelm I
· 1888- Wilhelm I dies, taken over by Wilhelm II
· Wilhelm II was an intelligent man, but lacked diplomatic skills
· Quarreled with Bismarck and dismissed him from office
· Also failed to renew an agreement with Russia, so Russia
turned to France
· Two countries signed the Dual Entente (understanding)
· FRANCE HAD FOUND AN ALLY

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Revenge?
· Germans knew that France wanted revenge
· Germans decided to make agreements with other nations- so
France have no allies
· 1882- Germany signed agreement with Austria-Hungary and
Italy (The Triple Alliance)
· By 1887- Germany had made alliances with three other major
powers
· France could only seek help with from Britain, but Britain had
no interest in war- since it could threaten it's huge empire

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