What is a constructive wave? (1)
These are long waves with little energy, better at depositing material on the beach. Swash is greater
What is a destructive wave? (1)
Shorter waves with lots of energy, drags sediment down the beach. Stronger backwash than swash.
Explain the formation of a stump (6)
Hydraulic action and abrasion erode the headland creating an undercutting of cliff base, which then
forms a wave cut notch. An overhang is created as the wave cut notch depends and the overhang
cannot be supported so it collapses and the headland retreats. This leaves a rocky platform in from =
wave cut platform. The erosion of hydraulic action and abrasion occurs along faults which then
produces a cave. The cave emerges either side to produce an arch. With continued erosion the arch
widens and it cannot be supported the roof collapses forming a stack. More erosion undercuts the
stack forming a stump as it collapses.
Describe the method of coastal protection shown (2) [picture of rock armour]
Large rocks placed at the bottom of the cliff to absorb the wave energy, they are effective at
dispersing the wave's energy.
Suggest how rock armour will protect the housing built along the coast (3)
These are large rocks which are placed at the bottom of the cliff. The rocks are randomly arranged
and can absorb the waves energy which prevents undercutting of the cliff so less erosion and less
collapse. Therefore the cliff won't retreat back.
Explain the formation of a wavecut platform (6)
The wave cuts a wave cut notch in the headland as it exploits a point of weakness. The force of
gravity and weight of the rock causes it to collapse. Process starts again. After a series of cliff
collapses a wave cut platform is left which is exposed during low tide.
Describe one method of a coastal protection (2)
Sea Wall These are hard concrete walls which are built to reflect wave attack on the coast
preventing erosion from the land behind often very expensive and ugly.
Explain how some coastal defences work (4)
Gabions Metal cages containing pebbles and cobbles placed at the bottom of the cliff. They are used
to absorb the wave's energy and dissipate wave energy shielding the cliff from the erosion. It also lets
the water percolate out from the cliff face, reducing the risk of landslide and mudflow.
Revetments These are sloping, slatted, timber walls set at about 45*. They are made from hard
woods and the slats in them means water is partly reflected but partly dissipated + some of the water
percolates between the slats. They stop undercutting and collapse of the cliff.
Explain how and why cliff collapse occurs in some coastal locations. (4)
Other pages in this set
Hydraulic action and abrasion erode the headlands back. Often in areas of dense jointing lies a fault
which is vulnerable to erosion from the waves. Wave cut notch + platforms are often created
sometimes forming stacks and stumps.
With the aid of a diagram, explain what happens in long shore drift? (6)
The prevailing wind (where the wind usually blows from) causes waves to approach the coast at an
angle. Therefore the waves carry the sediment up the beach at the same angle, (45* normally).
Explain how levees are formed (6)
As river floods the velocity is reduced so sediment is deposited. Larger heavier sediment are
deposited closer to the channel, great thickness of alluvium can build up. Natural embankments build
up. Repeated flooding is needed to make them form properly and the river must be carrying a large
Describe effects of flooding (4)
Roads flooded, peoples houses so lose personal possessions. Can't work so lose money. Costly to
repair stuff. Electricty and phone lines are disconnected.
Using examples of earthquakes, explain why some cause more deaths than others (6)
LEDCS/MEDCS recovery, prediction, buildings, medical, emergency services.
Label a volcano (3)
Crater, vent, subduction zone, magma, lava.
Using one or more examples of a volcanic eruption, describe the effects on the physical
Landslides = towns fuckered. Pinatubo, 10ft deep of mud by lahars. Cloud of gas, steam and dust
across ground flattening trees. Melted the snow caused mudflows to be quick picking up
material/bridges/trees. No plantlife/wildlife survived. Rivers/lakes contaminated.
Furthermore, there is the problem of visual pollution, as de-industrialized areas often scar the
landscape, with abandoned, derelict factories an eyesore to anyone inhabiting or visiting the area.
Thus, in order to mitigate such problems and improve the economy of such areas, government help in
the form of incentives, or creation of development agencies, is vital in attracting industry to the area
and re-vitalizing it.
Transport Routes: It is important to take into consideration what transport routes there are in the
vicinity of the industry's location. Dual carriageways and motorways are often seen as important to
allow cheap, efficient transport of the finish product to its market, as well as ensuring a ready supply
of raw materials from its source. There also needs to be good access for workers to be able to
commute quickly and efficiently from their abodes.
What is the link between secondary and tertiary industry? (2)
Secondary industries involve manufacturing finished products, which are then supplied to tertiary
industries, who sell such products on, as their duty is to provide a service to the general public and
Give two reasons for the industrial changes that have taken place in NICS. (2)
1: NICs can often provide cheap labour, with the workforce willing to work long, productive hours for
very little pay.
This is because manufacturing industries have declined due to competition from NICs and LEDCs,
where it is now cheaper for production to take place. Raw materials in MEDCs have become
uneconomic to extract or have simply been economically exhausted. Thus, tertiary and quaternary
industries, which have been established over a long a period of time, initially to support
manufacturing industries, have flourished, with the majority of the working population now
employed in them.
People move from one country to another. Using examples, describe the advantages to the two
countries involved. (6)
Recipient broadens the culture with languages etc. More labour (eg when England wanted people
to come in from India etc) Brings money to the country, spending money etc. New skills and ideas
Other country less pressure on goods like food, water etc. Money sent back by migrants is
important foreign exchange. Families improve local economy by spending in local shops and services.
Death Rates technology was improved and so was medical care.
Describe how government of MEDCs try to cope with changes in population structure. (6)
Talk about the 2 policies discussed before?
Describe voluntary migration (2)
This is when somebody or family choose to leave a country/enter a country by their own choice. EG
to find a better lifestyle.
Describe forced migration (2)
People are forced to enter/leave a country.