1.1 Rock exposures are formed of minerals, rocks and fossils

All you need to know in line with the 2010 geology GCSE specification for the topic 1.1

Preview of 1.1 Rock exposures are formed of minerals, rocks and fossils

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1.1 Rock exposures are formed of minerals, rocks and fossils
Rock ­ Naturally occurring material made of minerals or fragments of rocks or fossils
Mineral ­ Naturally occurring element or compound with fixed properties
Fossil ­ Any preserved sigh of past life, more than 10,000 years ago
Identification tests
Mineral colour: Look at the mineral and attempt to determine the rough color
Mineral Streak: Rub the mineral on a `streak plate' (back of a porcelain tile and
determine the colour of the streak
Mineral Lustre: Describe the way the light makes the mineral look: v
Metallic ­ looks and shines like a metal (except Galena)
Vitreous ­ (glassy) Glistens like glass (e.g. Quartz)
Dull ­ no reflection at all (e.g. malachite)
Transparent
Translucent ­ Vaguely see light through it
Opaque
Mineral Hardness: Stop after each step if the mineral is scratched (1 ­ 10)
1. Scratched by a Fingernail (1 or 2)
2. Scratched by a Copper Coin (1, 2 or3)
3. Scratched by a Knife ­ steel blade (1,2,3,4 or 5)
4. Above 5 is harder than steel (5, 5, 7, 8, 9 or 10)
Mineral Cleavage: Look at the mineral, is there clear lines where the mineral is
broken (1 ­ 4 lines possible) if not there is no cleavage
Mineral reaction to acid: Put a drop of dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) watch and
record the results
Mineral density:
Weight the mineral, and record it, fill a eureka with water, and drop the rock in it,
work out how much water came out by measuring it. Divide the weight in air by the
amount of water lost.

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